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Re: Why we should keep our distance *LINK*

Studies map key spots on African Americans' genomes: The first detailed maps of the places where DNA is likely to be reshuffled in their genomes provide a tool to help find genes that cause disease.

By Eryn Brown, Los Angeles Times

July 20, 2011, 4:44 p.m.

Two independent research teams have used a new method to develop the first detailed maps of the places where DNA is likely to be reshuffled in the genomes of African Americans, creating a tool that will help find genes that cause disease, scientists reported Wednesday.

The new maps pinpoint thousands of "hot spots" on chromosomes where recombination a gene-swapping process that is crucial to creating genetic diversity but is sometimes linked to disease is likely to occur.

The knowledge will help researchers uncover the genetic underpinnings of illness in all people but particularly in African Americans, said Harvard Medical School geneticist David Reich, the senior author of a study published online by the journal Nature. To date, medical genetics studies have focused almost exclusively on people of European descent.

"African Americans have a unique gene structure," he said. "If they're not studied, we won't find the genes that cause disease."

Reich's team, co-led by University of Oxford statistician Simon Myers, looked at DNA data collected from 29,589 unrelated African Americans who had participated in various genetic studies around the U.S. With so many subjects, Reich said, the map is the most accurate available for any population.

The team found about 2,500 hot spots that were active in people of West African descent but scarce among Europeans.

The second team, led by UCLA geneticists, looked at DNA from 2,864 African Americans and African Caribbeans and also found significant differences from European DNA. The UCLA researchers published their results online in the journal Nature Genetics.

To construct the maps, both teams took advantage of a unique characteristic in African Americans: Their genes are a relatively recent blend of European and West African DNA.

Reich likened the blending of genetic heritages to editing film.

Individuals produce eggs or sperm containing long sections of DNA from each of their parents. Much like reels of film, those sections are cut and spliced together. The splices are the locations where recombination occurs.

Since the mixture of African and European DNA in African Americans has taken place over just six generations, on average, each person's reel of film has only broken up a handful of times.

That leaves "a mosaic of large, unbroken chunks of genetic information" in African Americans' genes, Reich said. The scientists compared those long chunks to known sequences of African and European DNA and figured out where the recombination hot spots were located.

In populations where genetic mixing took place further in the past, such as South Asians, the DNA has been cut and spliced more times, Reich said. This results in smaller chunks of genetic information that are too short to compare to reference genomes.

In such populations, scientists building recombination maps will have to rely on the same methods used in Europeans. These include comparing an individual's DNA to that of his or her relatives to figure out where recombination has occurred.

UC Davis geneticist Graham Coop, who was not involved in either study, praised both for their statistical elegance. "What's nice is the replication," he added. "You're getting two groups independently coming to similar conclusions."

The human genome is more than 99% identical in humans of all backgrounds. But, Coop said, "there are some differences and those differences are biologically interesting."

Until now, scientists have had to rely on maps built with DNA from people of European descent. Having more-accurate maps for African Americans should help scientists plot the genes that cause them to develop diseases both common conditions like heart disease and cancer, as well as yet-to-be-identified ailments that are unique to the group.

"More and more we're appreciating the importance of diversity in doing medical studies," said UCLA geneticist John Novembre, coauthor of the smaller study. "It's not always a one-size-fits-all approach."

Both Reich and Novembre said they would next like to map the recombination hot spots in Latinos, who have a mix of European, Native American and African ancestry, stretching back about nine generations.

Messages In This Thread

Food 4 Thought (Race Mixing)
Correction...
Re: Correction...
Re: Correction...
Re: Correction...
BYW, I am not...
Re: BYW, I am not...
I am still hoping for a metaphysical edification
Re: I am still hoping for a metaphysical edificati
Re: I am still hoping for a metaphysical edificati
Re: I am still hoping for a metaphysical edificati
The Semite controls the message... *LINK*
wow...WAG THE DOG *NM*
Re: Correction...
bear with me...
Re: Correction...
Re: Correction...
bon appetit *NM*
Re: Correction...
Femine Superiority (but not Hierarchy)
Re: Femine Superiority (but not Hierarchy)
LOL, put it in the fridge...
Re: Femine Superiority (but not Hierarchy) *LINK*
no worry, Kween...
Follow the Cattle/Bos
Re: Follow the Cattle/Bos
Re: Follow the Cattle/Bos *LINK*
Re: Femine Superiority (but not Hierarchy) *LINK*
Re: Femine Superiority (but not Hierarchy)
superiority is indeed an ugly connotation...
Re: superiority is indeed an ugly connotation...
Re: superiority is indeed an ugly connotation... *LINK*
Word/Sound/Power! *NM*
Re: superiority is indeed an ugly connotation...
Re: superiority is indeed an ugly connotation...
Parthenogenesis *NM* *LINK*
Re: Parthenogenesis
Re: Parthenogenesis
Re: Parthenogenesis
Re: Parthenogenesis *LINK*
WE ARE NOT THE SAME! *LINK*
Re: WE ARE NOT THE SAME! *LINK*
Re: WE ARE NOT THE SAME! *LINK*
Re: WE ARE NOT THE SAME! *LINK*
This is the brain on TOXO *NM* *LINK*
here's queenie *NM* *LINK*
Re: WE ARE NOT THE SAME! *LINK*
Black on Black Crime *LINK*
Re: Black on Black Crime *LINK*
Re: WE ARE NOT THE SAME! *LINK*
Why we should keep our distance *LINK*
Re: Why we should keep our distance *LINK*
Re: Why we should keep our distance *LINK*
Re: Why we should keep our distance *LINK*
Re: Why we should keep our distance *LINK*
Re: Why we should keep our distance *LINK*
Re: Why we should keep our distance *LINK*
Re: Why we should keep our distance *NM* *LINK*
Re: Why we should keep our distance *NM* *LINK*
Re: Why we should keep our distance *LINK*
Re: Why we should keep our distance *LINK*
Re: WE ARE NOT THE SAME! *LINK*
Re: WE ARE NOT THE SAME!
Re: WE ARE NOT THE SAME!
Re: WE ARE NOT THE SAME!
Re: WE ARE NOT THE SAME! *LINK*
Re: WE ARE NOT THE SAME!
Re: WE ARE NOT THE SAME!
Re: WE ARE NOT THE SAME!
Re: WE ARE NOT THE SAME! *LINK*
Re: WE ARE NOT THE SAME!
If you eat dead; abstain from weed. *LINK*
Re: If you eat dead; abstain from weed.
Re: If you eat dead; abstain from weed.
Re: WE ARE NOT THE SAME! *LINK*
Re: WE ARE NOT THE SAME! *NM* *LINK*
Re: WE ARE NOT THE SAME! *NM* *LINK*
Re: WE ARE NOT THE SAME!
Re: WE ARE NOT THE SAME!
Re: WE ARE NOT THE SAME! *LINK*
Re: WE ARE NOT THE SAME! *NM* *LINK*
Re: WE ARE NOT THE SAME! *LINK*
Re: WE ARE NOT THE SAME! *LINK*
Re: WE ARE NOT THE SAME! *LINK*
Re: WE ARE NOT THE SAME! *LINK*
Re: WE ARE NOT THE SAME! *LINK*
Re: WE ARE NOT THE SAME! *LINK*
Re: WE ARE NOT THE SAME! *LINK*
Re: Food 4 Thought (Race Mixing)
Re: Food 4 Thought (Race Mixing)
Re: Food 4 Thought (Race Mixing)
Re: Food 4 Thought (Race Mixing)
Re: Food 4 Thought (Race Mixing)
Re: Food 4 Thought (Race Mixing)
No Sexual Intercourse Between White and Non-white
Re: No Sexual Intercourse Between White and Non-wh
Re: No Sexual Intercourse Between White and Non-wh *LINK*
Re: No Sexual Intercourse Between White and Non-wh
Re: No Sexual Intercourse Between White and Non-wh
Re: No Sexual Intercourse Between White and Non-wh
Re: No Sexual Intercourse Between White and Non-wh
Re: Food 4 Thought (Race Mixing)
Seshata: WHERE did you get this from?
The United Independent Compensatory Code *NM*
Re: The United Independent Compensatory Code
Proceed with caution; *LINK*
Re: Proceed with caution;
Eviction vs Exodus
Re: Food 4 Thought (Race Mixing)
Re: Food 4 Thought (Race Mixing)
Give Thankhs Seshata:) *NM*
i guess this means carib queen doesnt want to get
To Quote the real "Eja"
i like what u wrote
karib kween
Re: To Quote the real "Eja"
Re: Food 4 Thought (Race Mixing) *NM* *LINK*
Re: Food 4 Thought (Race Mixing)
yeah when u look at the spread of people around th
Re: Food 4 Thought (Race Mixing)
Re: Food 4 Thought (Race Mixing)
Re: Food 4 Thought (Race Mixing)
Black Biblical Heritage
Race.........Defined.
What is Natural?
Re: What is Natural?
Re: What is Natural?
Re: What is Natural?
Re: What is Natural?
Re: What is Natural? *LINK*
Re: What is Natural?
Re: What is Natural?
Re: What is Natural?
Re: What is Natural?
Care to elaborate? *NM*
Re: Care to elaborate?
Be fruitful & multiply...
Re: Be fruitful & multiply...
Re: Be fruitful & multiply...
Re: Be fruitful & multiply...
Search Noah's Daughter-in-Law *NM*
Will do queen! *NM*
Re: Be fruitful & multiply... *LINK*
correction
Re: Be fruitful & multiply...
Voila!!!
Re: Voila!!!
Y-chromosomal Adam/Noah *LINK*
Re: Y-chromosomal Adam/Noah
Re: Y-chromosomal Adam/Noah
My search for Cain turned up Pelus/Pelasgi/Belus *LINK*
Re: My search for Cain turned up Pelus/Pelasgi/Bel *NM* *LINK*
Re: My search for Cain turned up Pelus/Pelasgi/Bel *LINK*
The Heresy of Pe'or/Pe'ul *NM* *LINK*
The Western Migration came first... *LINK*
Re: The Western Migration came first... *LINK*
Re: The Western Migration came first...
Re: My search for Cain turned up Pelus/Pelasgi/Bel *NM* *LINK*
Re: Be fruitful & multiply...
My First Sentiments...
Got It! *NM*
Why Dogs before Blacks *LINK*
Re: What is Natural?
Re: What is Natural?
Re: What is Natural? *LINK*
Re: What is Natural? *LINK*
Re: What is Natural? *LINK*
Re: What is Natural? *LINK*
Re: What is Natural? *NM* *LINK*
Re: What is Natural? *LINK*
Re: What is Natural? *LINK*
Re: What is Natural? *LINK*
Re: What is Natural?
Re: What is Natural?
Re: What is Natural?
Re: What is Natural?
Re: What is Natural?
Re: What is Natural?
Re: What is Natural?
Got Crabs? *LINK*
Re: What is Natural? *LINK*
Re: What is Natural?
Re: What is Natural?
Re: What is Natural?
Re: What is Natural?
Re: What is Natural?
Re: What is Natural?
The Gut Check
Re: What is Natural?
Seems like Nature is fighting it... *LINK*
Re: Seems like Nature is fighting it...
Re: Seems like Nature is fighting it...
Re: Seems like Nature is fighting it...
Instinct vs Will
Re: Instinct vs Will
Re: Instinct vs Will
Re: What is Natural?
Re: What is Natural?
Re: What is Natural?
Re: What is Natural?
Re: What is Natural?
"NATURAL MYSTIC"
Re: What is Natural?
Re: What is Natural?
Re: What is Natural?
Re: What is Natural? *NM* *LINK*
Re: What is Natural?
Re: What is Natural? *LINK*
Re: Food 4 Thought (Race Mixing)


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