THE FIVE GREAT RENAISSANCES OF THE BLACK WORLD
The development of culture and civiliztion in the Black world has been ongoing for more than twenty thousand years. The recent findings that as early as 70,000 years ago, Africans in Southern Africa were cating advanced toolsand weapons of bone and other materials, were marking geometric patterns on red ochre about 77,000 years ago, (Usha Lee McFarling; L.A. Times: Fresno Bee, Jan. 11, 2002 "Etchings shatter bedrock anthropological ideas," pg. A7), shows clearly that civilization may have developed in Africa at a much earlier period than previoiusly thought. Evidence for such culturs would be in the Nile Corridor-East Africa, the Sahara, South Africa, West Africa and the Congo Basin Region.
Rastararians and the African Renaissance
Rastafari has to be for liberation on all fronts, economiÁ,cultural, social and racial. Of course many of us may think that all is "peace and love," but around the world, many systems and societies continue to oppress the Black race. When we look at Sudan, Mauritania, parts of Southern Africa, Latin America, India, Indonesia, Australia, Europe, New Caledonia, Mauritius and other lands where we have Black people, what we see is systematic oppression, genocide, cultural destruction, trickery (as when certain people in the U.S. promote trashy, non-conscious music while stealing good Black music for others and calling it "pop," or stealing jazz, reggae, blues, and pushing Blacks to the worse form of musical expression available. Yet, the same people own all the radio stations that play the worse they can get out of us. Moreover, when listening to some of these stations in the "talkshow" category," owned by the same people who play non-conscious music, one finds tht the New York elite from certain groups controle and supply the "conservo-facist" element who have been using Nazi-like racist propaganda to demonize the character of Blacks. The Misleds, Horror-witses, Limbos, Sewages and others who promote pseudo-scientific Nazi eugenic racist theories and lies of Blacks being less, while these same people are trying prove that their dogs, birds, monkeys and parrots are the same as humans.
When the world at present is permeated with a facistic element who attacks Africans/Blacks on all fronts, what we in the Rastafarian Nation and the Black World Community should be doing is applying the African system of mental warfare. We use our intelligence and take steps to protect our selves and our interests. The poster does that and by networking and creating strong organizations on a worldwide level, we are taking steps to educate and liberate those who are sleeping.
Classical Black Civilizations and Their Creation of Black Renaissances Over Thousands of Years
We must not forget that that there is a classical African civilization that was part of the Black experience from as early as 10,000 B.C. In fact, in 1999-2000, archeologists made significant discoveries in Sudan (the Holy Lands of all Blacks, now under Semitic Arab religious and cultural imperialistic control). The prehistoric kingdom of Ta-Seti was found to have had a great civilization. They produced fine glass, pottery, had a large astronomical observatory, large cities (covered with sand today), reservoirs,roads and were the parents of what became Egyptian Civilization.
The classical Nubian civilization included metalworking, the first "industrial revolution," about 650 B.c. to the 300 A.D., when Meroe, had a number of factories that produced chariots, tools, weapons and other goods of iron and steel) shipbuilding and trade with places as far as Mexico and China, a strong military that appied martial arts training and kept manuals for training their troops (as Tarharka did when the Nubians invaded Spain in the 600's to 700's B.C.), textiles, goldworks, a strong system of laws, kingship, respect for women, the cherishing of families, the maintainance of female vertue, the arts, paintings, pottery, the succession of kings and queens, writing, laws, a constitution (see an example "The African Constitution," http://community.webtv.net/paulnubiaempire ), a very important trading network, buildings of stone and motar, huge temple complexes and much of what was later found in Egypt.
As I made in the Essay, "Rastafarian Reformation," Rastafari and Africans in general, must not be pushed into a corner and left there to stagnate. We should seek knowledge in all fields of human endeavor. We should also remember that the Rastafari tradition goes way back to the warrior-priest and priest-king traditions of ancient Khemet (Egypt), Nubia-Kush and Sabea-Ethiopia. In fact, it was the ancestors of people who followed the priestly creed of liberation and justice who stopped the Hyksos from totally destroying Egypt and bringing about a system similar to what happened to Blacks in ancient India, when the Aryan speakers gained control of the sacred religious texts, infiltrated the priesthood, gained control of the government and implemented the world's most horrible system of racism and color-caste segregation. Today,that system has 300 million Black Untouchables and about 300 million Black, Negro-Australoids (the black/dark-skinned, straight and curly-haired people of India, whose racial and genetic,language and cultural connections are with Africans and other Blacks, including Ethiopians) and Mongols (Jats) of the Tribal community, living in the worse form of racism every devised. The current conflict between India and Pakistan is rooted in the racist caste system, since many Black Dalits and others converted to Islam to escape the caste system, (see http://dalitstan.org
Anyone who wants to have a first hand account of trickery by many who have "adopted," or copied Black religion, culture and art, one should study the Black Untouchables of India ( www.claritypress.com ) or the book, "Susu and Susunomics," ( at www.iuniverse.com ) or "Susu Economics," (at www.1stbooks.com ) Both works are also at www.barnesandnoble.com
The present-day nation of Ethiopia, which was Axum and later Abbysinia also has a classical Black civilization. An example of that is the Axuminte Kingdom, however, the Sabean civilization which included Southern Arabia to Ethiopia was a very ancient culture and one sees Sabeans in the movie, "The Ten Commandments," selling horses to Moses. These Black Sabeans are the ancestors of the 'Black Arabs," who are the original Negro Africoid people of Arabia, and who Drusilla Dungee Houston states as being, the ancient Adites, who were desendants of Cush.
The Ethiopian (Abbysinian) empire also included parts of Southern Russia and even today, the Ethiopian alphabet is found in Armenia. Furthermore, according to some historians, there was a large Black population, related to the Ancient Egyptian soldiers and their families living in the Black Sea area. As recently as the First Wold War, there were still many of these Blacks of Ancient Egyptian origins living in the Black Sea region.
In speaking of a classical civilization, the kingdoms of Ghana, Mali and Songhai must be included. However, by about 3OOO B.C., there was a civilization in the region of Mauritania, Mali, Nigeria and the region. Michael Bradley explains in his book, The Black Discovery of America. That civilization was classical in its form and was directly related to Kush and ancient Egypt, although it was not an outpost of these civilizations, but an offshoot of a great prehistoric civilization that existed in the South Western Sahara. According to Blisshords Communications, "The Origins of the African Standard (the red,black and green flag), that civilization was the Zingh Empire. It was a great civilizations that had a magnificent maritime culture when the Sahara was partially covered by a large inland sea. The Zingh Empire existed about 15,000 years B.C. and their Emperors were able to unite much of Africa and the tnen Black "Middle East," where they planted the red, black and green flag. Many nations in the Middle East today still use red, black and green in their flags.
CLASSICAL MATERIAL CULTURE OF AFRICA AND THE SECOND RENAISSANCE
Africa has had many renaissances over the past twenty thousand years. The first renaissance occurred about 20,000 years ago and took place in the Sahara. There was an aquatic civilization where boats and ships were built.
The prehistoric Africans of the wet Sahara built towns, villages and cities. They had cattle, they fished and built boats of papyrus and planks, as many still do today (the builders of Thor Heyardahl's first boat, Ra 1, were from the Africans of the Mali area of West Africa. These ancient Sahara Africans also were the first to use mumification and practice many aspects of culture found in Egypt and Nubia-Kush.
It was during that period that waves of Blacks from the Sahara who spoke the Mende family of languages (see Clyde Winters), began to travel by ship to the Americas and to the Indian Ocean and South Pacific/Melanesia in what was a series of migrations that begun about 100,000 years ago.
(The development of the various periods of African civilization is presented in the book, "Susu Economics: The History of Pan-African Trade, Commerce, Money and Wealth," published by 1stBooks Library, www.1stbooks.com )
The Egyptian, Nubian, Mesopitamian, Negro-Australoid Indus Valley civilization, the Black Olmecs of Mexico, the Black Waschitaw pyramid builders of the Southern U.S., The Black Shang Dynasty, the Nok-Wagadu civilization of West Africa, Black Sabean civilization, Punt (the South Africa/Zimbabwe region), Egyptian Poleponeses (Greece), Egyptian Crete, Black Iberia....all these civilizations founded or influenced by Black Africans had a long renaissance period that began as early as about 10,000 B.C. with Nubia and continued up to the 300's A.D.
THE THIRD RENAISSANCE.
The Third Renaissance in Black world culture and civilization occurred from about the 400's A.D. to about 1700's A.D. During the Third Black Renaissance, Christianity was the predominant religious philosophy in Nubia and Ethiopia. Ethiopia was developing in all aspects of its culture and the Nubian Churches were flourishing as well. All types of ancient manuscirpts were available both in Nubia and Ethiopia and schools, colleges and monastries were built. There was trade and commerce with many lands and the military and economic aspects of these kingdoms were flourishing.
THE FORTH RENAISSANCE
The Forth Renaissance of African/Black world civilization occurred from about the nineth century to the late 1600's. «ivilizations like Ghana, Mali, Songhai, developed. Ghana had a long history of civilization and during the seven to eleventh centuries, the Kings of Ghana brought in teachers from Egypt to add more to the traditional system of African education, (see "Education, Its a Black Thing," http://community.webtv.net/paulnubiaempire Many of these kingdoms had some aspect of Islam which was restricted to the ruling classes, while the vast majority of people continued to follow the African systems. In fact, During the Ghana period, African education added the Islamic aspect, thus helping to expand the African "age-grade,"and trades guild system of African invented education that is thousands of years old, and the world's oldest organized system of education.
In Nubia, the Arabs launched an invasion and Emperor Kalydosos defeated them (see Destruction of Black Civilization, by Chancellor Williams, published by Third World Press; Chicago, Illinois: publisher H. Madhubhuti. Thus, Nubians remained Christian and continued to thrive althoug the Arabs continued to carry off Africans into Slavery. During the 800;s A.D., these Africans called "Zanj," made up of Black Egyptians, Nubians, Ethiopians, East Africans and West Africans rebelled against the Arabs in Bagdad and destroyed every Arab army sent against them. They created their own capital in Iraq and ruled for many years before every Arab army all around the Arab-occupied Mediterranean were called in to crush the rebellion. After that, Black slaves were not imported in large numbers into the Middle East.
By the 1500's with terroristic tactics, massive migration of Bedouins and infiltration, the invaders were able to occupy parts of Sudan and establish their religion on some of the African People. They were defeated and kept from occupying Ethiopia, thus leaving Ethiopia a Coptic Christian nation. Today, this imperialistic racist invasion of Nubia-Kush (Sudan) continues. Any Nubian, Black Sudanese, Africanist or Rastafarian, even any Christian who believes in fredom and justice, will see plain and clear that Nubia-Kush is to Blacks, what Isreal is to the Jews. Nubia-Kush is the core and the soul of Black civilization and the Dinkas, Nubians, Nubas and other Africans in Nubia fighting for their lands are the direct descendantsof the ancient Nubian-Kushites and Egyptians who were chased out of their lands when the Romans began bringing Bedouins into the region (very important point made by an Africanist on the ART BELL SHOW, Friday January 5th, 6.00-8.00 pm), and also during the later invasion that occurred during the 600's A.D.
In Ethiopia, the Kings soundly defeated every invader that attempted to turn Ethiopia into an European or Arab religious colony, as is the case of Sudan today (one of the reasons why Africans in Africa and the Diaspora have always looked and continue look upon Ethiopians as one of the important people in the total liberation of Africa, and stopping the infiltration and colonial ambitions of those from the Semitic and European nations.) The Turks were also defeated, all other invaders were defeated or kept at bay and Ethiopia (Abbysinia) remained Christian Coptic. During that period 600's - 1600's, Ethiopia was able to make some developments
and was not hampered by colonial intrusion untill the Europeans began to infiltrate Africa.
BLACK CULTURE IN S. ASIA, SE ASIA, MELANESIA
One of the core areas of Black cultural development is India, South China and Melanesia/Australia. In all these regions, Black culture has thrived and continues thrive. Yet, in some areas such as West Papua ( see www.westpapua.org ) and Australia, Blacks are being systematically oppressed and in some cases genocide is taking place.
In ancient times, before southern expansion of the Mongoloid tribes into Southern China or the Aryan spekers into India, or the mixed Malays into Indonesia, the entire region was a large belt of Black culture and Black civilizations that have been in existance from the time Cush's sons, Hind and Sind, and the Black descendants of Punt migrated Eastward to the Pacific region, (IN INDONESIA, MELANESIA, AUSTRALIA...if we believe the Biblical account and realize that the period of migrations from Africa could be tens of thousands of years ago, rather than the four to six thousand years since the Great Flood as the Bible lays it out). In fact, according to New Guinea sources, agriculture was being practicedin Papua-New Guinea as early as 30,000 years ago.
In Southern China, the "black and oily skin," Chang Dynasty was in existance before 1100 B.C. and the Shia before them was also a Black Dynasty, which included Chinese Mongoloids as well. In Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand and SE Asia, Black kingdoms and empire existed from before Christ up to the eleventh centuries and in the Philipines, Black Agta communities were dominant over the entire island before the massive immigration of Malays into the islands. (see Runoko Rashidi, http://www.cwo.com/~lucumi/runoko.html )
The inhabitants probably practiced a form of horticulture or agriculture. Evidence of that may be found in the fact that people whose origins arein the Sahara and East Africa, practiced agriculture and horticulture and still do today in Papua New-Guinea and have been doing so for more than thirty thousand years according to some Papua New Guinea historians and writers ( see www.westpapua.org ). Moreover, some cultural objects found in Papua New Guinea, like the male sheaf can be seen on prehistoric stone carvings of Africans from the Sahara ( See "Egypt Revisited," essay by Wayne B. Chandler, "Of Gods and Men: Egypt's Old Kingdom," pg.123: Edt. Ivan Van Sertima, Transaction Publishers, New Bruinswick, NJ.)
Furthermore, it was the former Foreign Minister of Papua-New Guinea, Ben Tangghama, who pointed out that the Blacks of Africa and Melanesia/Asia are connected to Africa today, they were connected in the past and they will be connected in the future (see "The Black Untouchables of India," by V.T. Rajshekar, Runoko Rashidi and Y.N. Kly: www.claritypress.com ).
The Swahili states is an example of an ancient African civilization that existed long before Arabian or Persian civilization coming under the cultural influence of these two invader nations who found an organized system of towns along the coast that had been there as early as the time of Hatshepsut, and who had traded with the ancient Egyptians, Nubians, Chinese, Indians and others thousands of years before the arrival of the Arabs.
In fact, the region from Somalia to South Africa was called Punt or "Negau" (God's Land). During the time of Hatshepsut an expedition occurred in the region and one sees the Puntite Queen, Queen Ati (with a strong build) and her attendants going to meet the Egyptians. Was Punt South Africa or was it Somalia, Kenya or the entire Eastern to Southern parts of Africa? When one looks at the present-day culture of South Africa to Somalia, it is very likely that Hatshepsut's journey was the region of Mozambique/South Africa, and South Africa, did have an organized civilization during the time of Hatshepsut. The clue is the fact that the Egyptians account of that trip pointed out that they had "bars of electrum," which was only made in the Mozambique/South Africa region.
The stopping of African development and that of India and other Black lands have a lot to do with the infiltration and invasions of other people into Black lands. They were able to apply "devide and conquer," techniques, turning nation against nation, or corrupting ancient religions and teachings to suit thier imperialistic agendas.
IT IS TIME FOR THE FIFTH BLACK WORLD RENAISSANCE
In retrospect, as we work to achieving a worldwide Black/Ethiopian Renaissance, we must take a good look at our history and learn from our mistakes. Renaissances in Africa over the past twenty thousand years were started by the free movement of trade, respect for the rights of others, fighting against all forms of oppression and defeating the oppressors, keeping strong and effective armies and military units, encouraging the creativity and rewarding the contributors.
As long as we adhere to these principles, we are going to create a great group of nations. Finally, many say that Confucianism and Asian values contributed to the fast economic development of Asia today. I say American help and money is also responsible (see "Susu Economics: The Theory and Practice of Pan-African Trade, Commerce, Money and Wealth," pub. by Iuniverse.com see a preview at www.barnesandnoble.com ). The fact that North Korea and Vietnam who come from a Budhist and Confucian tradition are not as developed as South Korea, Taiwan, China, Singapore is proof that more than Asian culture is responsible for their economic success. Actually, in a nation like India where the Black Untouchables/Dalits are severely oppressed by caste, their very oppression and the systematic and generational oppression is the main reason why India's potential will never be realized and be fully established.
Tribalism and divisiion in Africa will also work to stagnate development. Dependancy and the facination with the goods of Europeans and Asians, the religions of Arabs and Semites and the elitist mentality of the European aristocratic classes will keep Africa/Blacks underdeveloped. WHAT WILL HELP BRING ABOUT A RENAISSANCE IS FOR AFRICAN/BLACK LEADERSHIP TO LIST ALL THE THINGS THAT ARE KEEPING US BACK AND WORKING TO REMOVE OR TO MAKE THEM WORK FOR ADVANCEMENT.
Let the Ethiopian Renaissance, the Nigerian Renaissance, the Caribbean Renaissance, the African-American Renaissance, the Afro-Brazilian Renaissance, the Melanesian Renaissance and the Black Latin-American Renaissances that are presently going on all over the world flower to the maximum extent. The very fact that in Brazil today, the philosophy of "Olodum," and "Zumbi," has been transforming Black Brazil and strengthening the African culture and traditional religions, arts, education and other aspects of life is a very good sign. The fact that Black Untouchables in India and Indians who want to help develop all Indians are applying economic principles that are helping to elevate the lives of Black Untouchables and helping development in India, (thanks to books like "Susu Economics: The Theory and Practice of Pan-African Economic, Racial and Cultural Self-Preservation," pub. by 1stbooks Library www.1stbooks.com ).
Let the renaissances around the Black world begin with the realization that all of us are the same people, as Blacks in India, Papua New Guinea, Australia and other regions occupied by prehistoric Africans realize. In fact, it is heartening to find that the idea of Rastafari, the lifestyle and the hairstyle is found in India, Papua New Guinea, Australia and Melanesia and has been there for thosands of years. The very idea of dedication, spirituality and advancement that is the core of what Rastafari is and shold be about is the very same dedication one finds in the Asian religions/ideologies like Confucianism, and Budhism (as well as Kung-fu brought to India by the Black Monk, Bodidharma, which came from India and has the same Egyptian and Nubian-Kushitic philosophical origins that Rastafari has at its ancient core in the Egyptian and Nubian-Kushite priesthood.
Let's hope we all make significant contributions ot the overall African Renaissance by studying the past, studying and implementing workable ideas and building a great present and future.
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