Re: Be fruitful & multiply... *LINK*
Posted By: karibkween In Response To: Re: Be fruitful & multiply... (noble ras heru)
Date: Friday, 11 September 2009, at 9:43 p.m.
In Response To: Re: Be fruitful & multiply... (noble ras heru)
Why does a genetic mutation which first occured in Eurasia feature so prominantly in the Kirdi, (N.B. Chaldi of Cholchi) Hausa and the Chadic speakers of continental Africa?
Main article: Haplogroup E1 (Y-DNA)
Main article: Haplogroup E1a (Y-DNA)
While there have been no attested exemplars of E1*, its sub-clade, E1a (M33), is found most often in West Africa, and today it is especially common in the region of Mali. One study has found haplogroup E1a-M33 Y-chromosomes in as much as 34% (15/44) of a sample of Malian men. Haplogroup E1a has also been detected among samples obtained from Moroccan Berbers, Sahrawis, Burkina Faso, northern Cameroon, Senegal, Sudan, Egypt, Calabria (including both Italian speakers at 1.3% and Albanian speakers at 2.9% ) and Portugal (5/553 or approx 0.9%)
Haplogroup E1a has been detected in North Africa and Europe independently of the ubiquitous E1b1a. Because E1b1a is known to have expanded recently, this leaves open the possibility of an ancient expansion from Sub-Saharan Africa into North Africa and Europe of E1a lineages."
Main article: E1b1b1a
E1b1b1a (E-M78), formerly E3b1a, is a commonly occurring subclade, widely distributed in North Africa, the Horn of Africa, West Asia, i.e. The Middle East and Near East "up to Southern Asia", and all of Europe. The European distribution has a frequency peak centered in parts of the Balkans (up to almost 50%) and Italy and declining frequencies evident toward western, central, and northeastern Europe.
Based on genetic STR variance data, Cruciani et al. (2007) suggests that this subclade originated in "Northeastern Africa", which in the study refers specifically to Egypt and Libya. about 18,600 years ago (17,300 - 20,000 years ago). Battaglia et al. (2008) describe Egypt as "a hub for the distribution of the various geographically localized M78-related sub-clades" and, based on archaeological data, they propose that the point of origin of E-M78 (as opposed to later dispersals from Egypt) may have been in a refugium which "existed on the border of present-day Sudan and Egypt, near Lake Nubia, until the onset of a humid phase around 8500 BC. The northward-moving rainfall belts during this period could have also spurred a rapid migration of Mesolithic foragers northwards in Africa, the Levant and ultimately onwards to Asia Minor and Europe, where they each eventually differentiated into their regionally distinctive branches". Towards the south, Hassan et al. (2008) also explain evidence that some subclades of E-M78, specifically E-V12 and E-22, "might have been brought to Sudan from North Africa after the progressive desertification of the Sahara around 6,000-8,000 years ago".
"E1b1b and E1b1b1 are quite common amongst Afro-Asiatic speakers. The linguistic group and E1b1b1 may have dispersed together from the region of origin of this language family. Amongst populations with an Afro-Asiatic speaking history, a significant proportion of Jewish male lineages are E1b1b1 (E-M35). The same study found E1b1b, at 22.8% of Ashkenazi and 30% of Sephardim Y-chromosomal frequencies, to be one of the major founding lineages in Jewish male lineages."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_E3b_(Y-DNA) (previously referred to as E1b1b1)
"Basques, along with Irish, show the highest frequency of the Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup R1b in Western Europe; some 90% to 95% of males residing in the Basque country and Navarre have this haplogroup. The rest is mainly I and a minimal presence of E3b."
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